James Bridle Article Questions

Who gets to decide what is “ethical” or “moral”?

It is hard to say whether or not it is national guidelines that decide because we have an open internet policy that prohibits companies from controlling the stream of information. Who decides what is ethical or moral right now seems to be the individual. Whatever content you consume, that is what you consider appropriate, ethical, or moral.

if companies decided what was ethical or moral, there would be no consensus. it is too complex of an issue to be addressed on a large scale because it’s like these things are put into existence and they are just left to be used and abused by the masses.

We’re on our own.

What conversations should we be having as parents, siblings, grandparents, childcare providers, and friends among ourselves and with the children in our care about the internet and how to use it?

I feel like we should be more careful about giving kids control over the devices they own. My mom is always amazed by my six year old cousin, and the way that she seems to know more about technology than she does. My cousin has her own iPad and she watches videos on YouTube. She knows how to search for videos and how to change the video. She is really smart, and has very much been raised with a device in hand. She consumes a lot of media, whether it is on the television or the Internet.

I think one thing families might do is make a playlist of pre-approved videos, so that the children don’t have to choose other options, even though they’re still on the screen…but maybe make a playlist of videos that you know are appropriate.

Watch the videos with the children and help them to consciously evaluate what is going on on the screen.

I read fanfiction and when I found out an eleven year old I babysit also reads from the same fandom – I was like, okay, that’s great, but you should really be careful. Make sure you look at the tags associated with stories and if there is a warning that states explicit content, beware of it. I know exactly how profane and explicit online writers can be, and so her profession of reading from the same fandom made me pause. I was like, we better not be reading the same types of stories.

Sexual Expression and its Subsequent Suppression: And So Disco Begins


In the 1930’s and 1940’s of the United States, white broadcasters owned black radio, and white announcers stifled black music (Cooper, 159). Air time dedicated to black musicality featured gospel music because it contained “nothing offensive or potentially seditious” (Cooper, 159). By failing to hire black announcers, white broadcasters deprived black musicality of its cultural context as well as of “any power to affect America’s social status-quo” (Cooper, 159). Radio refused autonomy over the black community’s own musical history. The struggle for authentic space and expression driven by members of the black community 

speak for yourself, be yourself, and create your own context and community, find a space that is your own, embrace your rights to be loud, open, and honest about your identity and your

Image credit: iHeartRadio

Yet, when the WDIA station of Memphis, Tennessee became the first “all black-formatted station featuring black on-air announcers,” black DJs began to thrive.

Spinning storied tracks that conversed with their audiences, black DJs demonstrated the talent, complexity, and necessity of black music. They became “community leaders” around the nation (Cooper, 159); along with black entrepreneurs, black DJs helped to engender a new culture of music: disco.

diverse disco cults

According to Carol Cooper, the author of “Disco Knights: Hidden Heroes of the New York Dance Music Underground,” the “1960s and 1970s were the golden decades for diversity in radio, and the 1970s and 1980s were years of tremendous progress and diversity in clubland” (160).

New York’s five boroughs were “particularly full of social and technological experimentation” (Cooper, 160). Black entrepreneurs began to transform college frat fundraisers and town rent parties into professional entertainment platforms.

The Manhattan clubs of Leviticus, Othello’s, Pegasus, and Down Under were birthed from the “art of throwing a party people would pay to attend” (Cooper, 160). And though these “black-oriented clubs” were strongly influenced by popular black radio, none of these clubs attracted the same audience (Cooper, 160). They were diverse.

Carol Cooper believes that “The biggest myth of late 1970s disco portrayed the disco audience as homogeneous in attitude and composition” (Cooper, 160). Disco has always been a “vast, multiethnic subculture” of music, whose various establishments served particular communities.

Disco “cults” fell along certain group categories such as gay discos, “new wave” discos, or “black mainstream discos” (Cooper, 161).

The Saint Dance Club is seen by many as the culmination of gay disco.

setting the stage for the saint

Stories of the Saint – Chapter 4: The Era

Bruce Mailman was an entrepreneur based in New York City, U.S.A. who was integral in providing sensual havens for the gay community during the 1970s and 1980s.

In the eras of the Sexual Revolution and of disco culture, Bruce Mailman endeavored to engineer an oasis of open desire and free expression in which gay men could engage.

To do this, Mailman first created the St. Marks Baths, a bathhouse described by author Jonathan McEwan as an “exciting place in which to enjoy the pleasures of the then unhindered sexual revolution” (36). Later, Bruce Mailman founded the Saint disco club, which, to many, came to represent the apotheosis of the disco era.

Saint Dance Club Memorial Block; Image Credit: NAMES Project

The unusually large size of the Saint’s memorial block attempts to communicate its extraordinary impact on New York’s gay history. The quilt’s size symbolizes both the magnificent breadth of the physical Saint as well as its metaphorical significance in history.

Stories of the Saint – Chapter 5: The Clubs

Office Hours Visit – September 22, 2017

During an office hours visit on Thursday, September 22nd, 2017, Dr. Wharton and I discussed the importance of understanding and learning how to use the technological tools presented to us in class. These tools increase our level of preparedness for future careers, as well as for the rest of college.

During the visit, I also learned how to change the text code in my Primary Source Descriptions document in order to prevent my paragraphs from assuming the format of my subject headers.

I was also informed of the fact that paragraph indentations were not required nor necessarily useful for the Primary Source Description. A simple return key stroke would provide ample paragraph structure to the description.

Important feedback about the current draft of my Primary Source Description prompted me to be more thoughtful of how I chose to block out my description.

Paragraphing, Dr. Wharton described, organizes different clusters of evidence. She recommended that I designate broad details of the panel into one paragraph, and create separate paragraphs for the instances I include a specific description of a particular object or material.

(For instance, the following paragraph demonstrates my attempt to sort specific details into their own paragraph:

“On the quilt, most of the stars are evenly spaced. Like party confetti, these stars are golden, with five points that could prick one’s finger. Their surface is flat and slightly cool to the touch though their points are sharp.”)

Her feedback improved the organization of my essay greatly.

My peer review session also improved my description’s organization. My peer reviewer encouraged me to provide an overview of how I would organize my description at the beginning of my text, which I feel helps to give clarity to the following description.

My partner also suggested that I include textural details early in my observation of an image on the quilt so that readers are more prepared to imagine that part of the panel in detail. For instance, I needed to say earlier whether or not an image was stitched onto the quilt, painted on, or else.

During my office hours visit, I also learned that I did not have to write the Primary Source Description according to MLA format.

Activity 1.5 G2W

Question 1: What would you think if you received such a memo? How is Elop ignoring kairos in his memo? Reread the section earlier in the chapter in which kairos is discussed, and then decide with your group how Elop fails to take kairos into consideration in writing his memo. Report to the class.

If I had received this memo, I would have been astounded at the lack of respect shown towards myself and my colleagues. Elop flattens kairos in this memo by unneccesarily detailing the future business strategies of a company 12,500 employees can no longer be a part of. Elop first fails to take kairos into consideration when he fails to recognize the appropriate time constraints of such a memo. By droning on endlessly about the future plans of Microsoft, Elop leaves readers in a cruel, anxiety-ridden limbo – forcing them to wait for the knowledge of whether their next paycheck is secure or not. The rhetorical situation Elop is in does not condone distraction from the most important information held within the memo, yet Elop buries the certainty of his employees’ futures beneath drivel about upcoming marketing changes. Kairos both “provides and limits opportunities for appeals suitable to [the] moment,” but Elop disregards the selflessness fitting for this type of memo. Much of the memo is devoted towards the company’s future plans, which thousands of employees whom no longer have a job at Microsoft should not have to read about.

Question 2: Discuss what employees would have preferred to hear from Elop, assuming they must be laid off. Share your conclusions with the class.

Employees would likely have rather heard the lines that Kevin Roose offers at the beginning of his article. Lines such as “Thank you for your years of service” and “We appreciate all that you have done for us” often seem cliché or meaningless in their overuse, but at least they provide the facsimile of emotion from the company now severing you from its workforce. Parting condolences and appreciation is necessary for any employee receiving the news that he or she no longer has a job. No one wants to feel expendable, or easily forgotten in the wake of new business partnerships and company remodeling. Former employers should acknowledge the value of the work former employees have put into their company. The discontinued presence of former employees should mean something to the company, and that meaning should exude through grateful, gracious language and remorseful terminology.


Syllabus Quiz


What are the major projects? In a bulleted list, provide links to the project descriptions for each of them.

How will your final grade be calculated?

My final grade is comprised of the grades I receive on the four major projects, and is also based on my general participation in the class, such as how much prep work I do or how many opportunities for extra points I seize.

What happens if you don’t complete one of the major projects?

I will receive a D as my grade, possibly lower, if I do not complete one of the major projects. 

What is Gradian and how do you use it? Embed the Gradian login page below your answer (hint: Google “embed iframe WordPress blog” to find out how).

Gradian is a website students will use to submit all of their class assignments for which they would like to receive points. Such assignments may include major project drafts, class prep work, or study group reflections. One uses Gradian by logging into gradian.gsucreate.org and submitting links to one’s work under the appropriate category. 

Embed the course calendar and weekly overview below this question.

Where on the course website can you find an overview of what’s due and the readings for each unit?

One can find an overview of what’s due under the Calendar header in a subcategory named Units Overview. One can find the readings for each unit under the Protected Course Readings subcategory under the header “Texts and Resources.” Follow this link to find the assigned Unit readings: https://fall2017.rswsandbox.net/engl1103/course-readings/

What is the best way to see an overview of what’s due each week?

If one goes to the weekly overview section of the website, one can find an overview of what is due during any week. Hover over the Calendar header, then select “Weekly Overview.”

What is the attendance policy?

Attendance is required. Students lose fifty points for any unexcused absence. Arriving to class late may result in a deduction of 25-50 points. If a student misses class, he or she should make an appointment with Dr. Wharton, or stop by during her office hours to learn what he or she has missed. Absences are excused when they involve university-sponsored events or if Dr. Wharton decides that an individual request for exemption from deducted points contains merit. 

What is one way you can lose points?

Arriving to class late can result in lost points.

What are my office hours, and how do you make an appointment to see one of us outside of class?

 Dr. Wharton’s office hours are from 9-10:30 am on Tuesdays and Thursdays. One can make an appointment by emailing Dr. Wharton’s GSU email, rwharton3@gsu.edu.

How do you earn participation credit? Provide a link to the instructions/guidelines for participation.

Class preparation work, such as preparing a draft for workshopping, as well as actively engaging in class discussions or peer review sessions can help one earn participation credit. Also, completing additional readings or activities outside of class can help one earn participation credit. 


How many points can you earn by participating in or organizing a study group session?

Once can earn 20 points, sometimes more, for doing either of those things. 

How can you be assured of earning an “A” in this course?

I will automatically receive an “A” if my points total equates to 5,985 points. Earning that many points requires me to complete all class prep work and all four major projects.  

What are the minimum requirements for earning a passing grade of “C”?

Completing and earning the minimum points given on all four projects, attending every class, and completing all class prep will earn me a “C” average.

What do you do if you’re not sure how to document your participation in order to earn points?

If I am unsure of how to document my participation, I should stop by Dr. Wharton’s office hours, or ask my question before or after class. 

What are the Unit 1 readings and which one is your group assigned to focus on for the Unit 1 Reading Response?

The Unit One readings are Kenneth Haltman’s “Introduction to American Artifacts” and Stephanie Fitzgerald’s “The Cultural Work of a Mohegan Painted Basket.” My group is assigned to respond to Haltman’s piece.